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Abstract The temporal link between large igneous province LIP eruptions and at least half of the major extinctions of the Phanerozoic implies that large scale volcanism is the main driver of mass extinction. Here we review almost twenty biotic crises between the early Cambrian and end Cretaceous and explore potential causal mechanisms. Many, but not all of these are accompanied by large negative carbon isotope excursions, supporting a volcanogenic origin. Most post-Silurian biocrises affected both terrestrial and marine biospheres, suggesting that atmospheric processes were crucial in driving global extinctions. Volcanogenic-atmospheric kill mechanisms include ocean acidification, toxic metal poisoning, acid rain, and ozone damage and consequent increased UV-B radiation, volcanic darkness, cooling and photosynthetic shutdown, each of which has been implicated in numerous events. Intriguingly, some of the most voluminous LIPs such as the oceanic plateaus of the Cretaceous were emplaced with minimal faunal losses and so volume of magma is not the only factor governing LIP lethality. However, the absence of convincing temporal links between impacts and extinctions other than the Chicxulub-Cretaceous example, suggests that impacts are not the main driver of extinctions. With numerous competing extinction scenarios, and the realisation that some of the purported environmental stresses may once again be driving mass extinction, we explore how experimental biology might inform our understanding of ancient extinctions as well as future crises. Previous article in issue.

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D — A. Present day Peru Current Location: Ecuador, Peru and Chile Major Highlights: This civilization flourished in the areas of present day Ecuador, Peru and Chile and had its administrative, military and political center located at Cusco which lies in modern day Peru. The Incas were devout followers of the Sun God Inti.

Nearly a hundred skeletons buried in a cave in southeast Utah offer grisly evidence that ancient Americans waged war on each other as much as 2, years ago, according to new research. Dozens of bodies, dating from the first century CE, bear clear signs of hand-to-hand combat: skulls crushed as if.

Roman Rite[ edit ] The Roman Rite is by far the most widely used. Like other liturgical rites , it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium and a half of its existence see Pre-Tridentine Mass. The forms that Pope Pius V , as requested by the Council of Trent , established in the s and s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition the edition to which other printings are to conform of the Roman Missal see Tridentine Mass and of the other liturgical books superseded the previous one.

The 20th century saw more profound changes.

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At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.

DPH promotes the health and well-being of all residents by ensuring access to high-quality public health and healthcare services, and by focusing on prevention, wellness and health equity in all people.

President Donald Trump is ignoring the obvious with his comments on mass shootings. Evan Vucci There are exceptions to all rules – someone plagued by wild pigs, the occasional supercar owner who only wants to prowl the boulevards and annoy people with unnecessary noise and blatant excess — but they are rare. The assault weapons are rubbish for target shooting. A “sporting” shooter after deer or a professional harvesting kangaroos wouldn’t want one.

AP Even if you buy into the dystopian American myth of “defending family”, an assault rifle is nonsense at close quarters. They’re best for killing at a little distance, not in the invaded home of another fantasy.

Western culture

They will continue to kill until the Judeofascists and their agents, allies and accomplices are identified, exposed and isolated. Where we stand today. Britain, America, and the Soviet Union were the other three big victors, with the two Anglo-Saxon powers working as a team. In the following decades, all three spent the post war years jockeying for power, glory and domination, both in the West and the larger globe, until the Soviet Union fell.

Then there were two, with the Russian rump state seemingly out of contention, and the power struggle down to the Zionists and the Anglo-Saxon dominated West. The two were going to govern jointly, and split the booty, or so it was widely thought.

Western music, music produced in Europe as well as those musics derived from the European from ancient times to the present day. The Egyptians, entering historical times about years later than the Mesopotamians, enjoyed all of the same types of activities and instruments, as may be deduced from.

Surface mass balance in the past Surface mass balance in the future References Comments How does mass balance vary over Antarctica? Is Antarctica currently losing or gaining mass? Will this massive ice sheet grow or shrink in the future? And what effect will increased snowfall have over coming centuries? In order to answer these questions, we must analyse the surface mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Mass balance is the sum of all processes of accumulation and ablation, including those at the ice surface and at the bed, but does not include mass changes due to ice flow1. See this page Introduction to Glacier Mass Balance for more information. Climatic mass balance includes surface mass balance and internal accumulation1. Ice dynamical changes may include changes to ice discharge and acceleration or deceleration of flow, which can lead to dynamic thinning or thickening, ice-shelf collapse , marine ice sheet instability , and other factors resulting in changes in the glacier beyond surface mass balance.

Surface mass balance Surface mass balance varies extensively over Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula has the highest accumulation rates up to mm per year , followed by coastal West Antarctica, which has around mm accumulation per year2. Compare this with the interior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, where it is dry and cold; here accumulation can be less than 25 mm per year.

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The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river system , largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages , the Renaissance , and the Enlightenment , as well as Christian culture.

Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all other cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature , and right up until the time of Alexander the Great , for example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotus , we see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East.

From crypto-Zionist left-Bolshevism and right-Neoconservatism in the Diaspora, through naked Jewish national socialism in Israel, Judeo supremacist (Zionist) movements have murdered and terrorized millions in pursuit of a messianic, “Chosen Race” agenda.

The term Yule is of disputed origin. It is unconnected with any word meaning “wheel”. The name in Anglo-Saxon was geol, feast: Icelandic iol a feast in December. Early celebration Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church. Irenaeus and Tertullian omit it from their lists of feasts ; Origen , glancing perhaps at the discreditable imperial Natalitia, asserts in Lev. Alexandria The first evidence of the feast is from Egypt.

But Lupi has shown Zaccaria, Dissertazioni ecc. Lupi, Faenza , , p. Clement , however, also tells us that the Basilidians celebrated the Epiphany , and with it, probably, the Nativity, on 15 or 11 Tybi 10 or 6 January. At any rate this double commemoration became popular, partly because the apparition to the shepherds was considered as one manifestation of Christ’s glory, and was added to the greater manifestations celebrated on 6 January; partly because at the baptism -manifestation many codices e.

The December feast therefore reached Egypt between and

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Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, employed by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated. Its language is now known as Ecclesiastical most used rite is the Roman Rite.. The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous.

Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide.

This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay emission of alpha particles and beta decay electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture.

7 Core Principles To Help Reinvigorate Western Culture

On Santa Rosa Island, one of the Channel Islands just 65 kilometers from Santa Barbara, nearly 20 sites have been found that reveal signs of prehistoric human activity, from massive middens of abalone shells to distinctive stone points and tool-making debris. Torben Rick of the Smithsonian Institution, who led the survey that uncovered the sites. The discovery adds hefty new data to the already mounting evidence that maritime Paleoindians — also known as Paleocoastal peoples — lived along the California coast at the end of the last ice age.

Modern members of the Chumash, who have inhabited the Channel Islands for thousands of years, re-create a crossing to the islands in a tomol canoe.

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

Western music, music produced in Europe as well as those musics derived from the European from ancient times to the present day. That the earliest writers explained it in terms of legend and myth strongly suggests the remote beginnings of the art of sound. Among the speculations about its origin, the more plausible are that it began as a primitive form of communication, that it grew out of a device to expedite communal labour, or that it originated as a powerful adjunct to religious ceremonies.

While such theories must necessarily remain speculative, it is clear, despite the prehistoric musical artifacts found in central Europe, that the cradle of Western music was the Fertile Crescent cupping the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. There the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Hebrew nations, among others, evolved political, social cultures that were absorbed by the conquering Greeks and, in turn, by the Romans, who introduced elements of that Mediterranean music to much of western Europe.

In all of these early cultures the social functions of music were essentially the same, since their climate, geographic location, cultural pace, and mutual influences produced many more social similarities than differences. The other musical occasions depicted in both pictures and written accounts were equally functional: In every case musical sounds were an adjunct either to bodily movement dance, march, game, or work or to song.

Many centuries were to pass before pleasure in euphonious sound became an end in itself. The establishment of Western musical traditions Roots in antiquity Ancient Middle East and Egypt The inhabitants of the Mesopotamian region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers —the Sumerians , the Babylonians , and the Assyrians —flourished from about to about bce. Their pictures and the few surviving artifacts indicate that they had instruments of every basic type: An undecipherable hymn engraved in stone, dating from about bce, is evidence of a primitive system of musical notation.

The Egyptians , entering historical times about years later than the Mesopotamians, enjoyed all of the same types of activities and instruments, as may be deduced from numerous written references to music as well as seen on many artifacts, especially the pictures preserved on pottery utensils. The musical culture of the Hebrew peoples , recorded from about bce and documented primarily in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament , was more directly influential in the West because of its adoption and adaptation into the Christian liturgy.

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The Military’s Pandora’s Box Source: Nick Begich and Jeane Manning This article was prepared to provide a summary of the contents of a book written in which describes an entirely new class of weapons. The weapons and their effects are described in the following pages. The United States Navy and Air Force have joined with the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, to build a prototype for a ground based “Star Wars” weapon system located in the remote bush country of Alaska.

As well as bush dwellers in Alaska, they include: Unlike the protests of the s the objections to HAARP have been registered using the tools of the s.

The Friday on which the Church keeps the anniversary of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

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The establishment of Western musical traditions Roots in antiquity Ancient Middle East and Egypt The inhabitants of the Mesopotamian region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers —the Sumerians , the Babylonians , and the Assyrians —flourished from about to about bce. Their pictures and the few surviving artifacts indicate that they had instruments of every basic type: An undecipherable hymn engraved in stone, dating from about bce, is evidence of a primitive system of musical notation.

The Egyptians , entering historical times about years later than the Mesopotamians, enjoyed all of the same types of activities and instruments, as may be deduced from numerous written references to music as well as seen on many artifacts, especially the pictures preserved on pottery utensils. The musical culture of the Hebrew peoples , recorded from about bce and documented primarily in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament , was more directly influential in the West because of its adoption and adaptation into the Christian liturgy.

Western pottery Ancient Near East and Egypt. In the early s, excavations at a Neolithic settlement at C̦atalhüyük, on the Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, revealed a variety of crude, soft earthenware estimated to be approximately 9, years old.A more advanced variety of handmade pottery, hardfired and burnished, has proved to be as early as bc.

William Adams William Adams is a European explorer and straightforward writer. Rooted in the West, he temporarily leaves home for more exotic excursions. Mainly focuses on Western and East Asian history and culture, game, travel, self-improvement, politics and economics. Both of them have referred to another important figure within academia, namely Charles Murray and his work Human Accomplishment , which highlights the fact that the largest share of great inventors and scientists stem from the Western world.

It takes a whole new level of ahistorical deconstructionism and revisionism in any attempt to relativize these undisputable findings. This is also partly why nationalists and conservatives are winning ground in the verbal culture wars. Duchesne, on the other hand, focuses on the traits that underlie the long-term cumulative process.

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